Indonesia's population is projected to hit 450 million by 2045 if the current growth rate continues.
The country's National Family Planning Coordinating Board said figures from a census carried out last year showed the population had grown by 3.4 million over the past 12 months.
Indonesia, the world's most populous Muslim nation, now has a total population of about 241 million.
Planning board secretary Sudibyo Alimoeso said the current growth rate meant that "by 2045 there could be 450 million people in Indonesia".
The results of the census have prompted calls for the government to take a more serious approach to family planning.